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UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Nepal

UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Nepal

How many UNESCO World Heritage Sites are there in Nepal? Why are they designated as World Heritage Sites, and what makes them so unique? Why should I go to these places, and are there any reconstructions or conservation efforts underway?

Pashupatinath

The word Pashupatinath is a mystery, but if we break it down and derive the meanings, "pashu" means animal and "pathinath" means the lord of all, so combining it gives us Pashupatinath, which means "the lord of all animals." But if the meaning derives to be "the lord of all animals," then why do thousands of people go to worship the place?

Mythology
According to Hindu mythology, Lord Shiva (Bholenath) is the only god who looks after all his devotees, including demons. Why are there demons?

Initially, all the gods and goddesses refused to aid or help the demon tribes, individuals whose souls and bodies had been despoiled and who were wicked by nature and actions, but Lord Shiva, known as Bhola (innocent and humble), told everyone who is not granted shelter or aid due to their deeds and evil nature, whether humans, animals, or demons, could come to my shelter. Please approach me because everyone in this universe deserves to live and change. As a result, he is known as Bholenath (innocent and humble), and Pashupatinath, Lord Shiva's head, has been visited by many people since time immemorial. People from all over the world come to pray at this location.

History
Pashupatinath is the most important pilgrimage site for anyone who worships Lord Shiva. There are numerous myths and stories surrounding the establishment of Pashupatinath. The precise time and date of construction of the main shrine is still unknown to this day, and many reconstructions have occurred over the years, making it difficult to predict the exact date using the carbon fiber method. We follow Hindu mythology, which states that the temple was built in the fifth century. As we entered the temple, we saw ashrams, temples, parties, images, inscriptions, artifacts, and many other mystical and ancient archaeological treasures built over the centuries and period.

Activities
The temple, known as Lord Shiva's head, is the most important Hindu pilgrimage site, attracting many tourists. When someone dies, cremation is essential, and on the Bagmati River's banks, cremations are performed by burning the body. At the facility, at least 40-50 bodies are burned per day. Every Monday, hundreds of worshippers gather to witness Lord Shiva's arati. Highly skilled baba and sadhus live and work in the neighbourhoods, providing a wealth of information on everything we ask for and even assisting in the treatment of numerous diseases. Cancer could potentially be cured utilizing the Vedic approach if we are fortunate enough to discover the correct Sadhus, Babas, and other healers.

Preservation and Conservation
The Nepalese government is responsible for the preservation and upkeep of Pashupatinath. Every year, resources are set aside from the government for the reconstruction and preservation of the site. Following the 2015 earthquake, major reconstructions of the entire area were completed, and the entire pace has been reborn. Private and single organizations spend a lot of money to feed the destitute people who stay at the ashrams. Various organizations carry out various forms of activity for the development of the area, such as water and food distribution, cloth distribution for elderly, budget for ashrams, and free cremation.

Swaymbhunath

Swayambhu means "self-oriented" or "self-created," and once the number of visits began to increase in the 15th century, many stupas, gumbas, and pilgrims were built around it.

Mythology
According to the Swayambhu Purana, the entire Kathmandu valley was originally a lake surrounded by hills (like water in a bowl), from which a lotus rose, which is now the pinnacle of the Swayambhu shrine. Manjusri had a dream of the Lotus at Swayambhu and travelled there in a boat to worship it. He began excavating a gorge at Chovar with his team, seeing that the valley may be a good settlement and to make the place more available to human habitation. The lake's water eventually began to drain, leaving the valley where modern Kathmandu currently stands dry. Legend has it that the Lotus transformed into a hill and the flower into a stupa.

History
It was founded at the beginning of the fifth century by the great-grandfather of King Mandev (464-505 CE), known as King Vasadev, according to archaeologies revealed. This was confirmed when a stone inscription at the site revealed that King Varsadev had authorized the work. Later, popular and influential kings' monks' gurus, as well as followers of Buddhism, contributed to a rapid increase in the number of visitors by erecting shrines, gumbas, and offering knowledge, free care, and education. Later, following the 15th century, the number of gumbas sacred shrines increased rapidly, as did the formation of numerous possessions we see now, and in the 17th century, King Pratap Malla did a massive reconstruction and construction of the area. The Shrine was re-gilded in the modern age with 20 kg of gold. The Tibetan Nyingma Meditation Centre supported the reformation. Even though the site is Buddhist, both Buddhists and Hindus appreciate it.

Activities
This stupa is the rarest, oldest, and only one of its kind in Nepal, and it has several shrines and monasteries on its premises, which attracts hundreds of visitors who come to see the whole panoramic view of Kathmandu valley, which appears so lovely from the hills of Swyambhunath. Morning and evening are spent doing good for the poor and dogs. Many businesses could be seen operating on the outskirts. People tossing coins into the air to test their luck while being bothered by monkeys. People visit the museum, which contains many mysteries, discoveries, and Buddhist knowledge. This shrine is possibly the best place in Nepal to observe religious synchronisation because people come here regardless of their religion. Cremation services are held on the stupa's right wing. We discovered many Buddhist-related shops and relics.

Conservation and Preservation
The Nepalese government is responsible for the preservation and conservation of Swaymbhunath. After the 2015 earthquake and a lightning strike in 2011, major reconstructions of the entire area were completed. Every year, budgets are set aside from the government for the reconstruction and preservation of the site. Private and solo groups from within and outside the country contribute significantly to the feeding of the people and monks at the Gumbas. Various administrations carry out various types of works and donation activities for the well-being of the area, such as providing water and food, cloth distribution for elders, budget for the Gumbas, museums, and holy shrines.

Changu Narayan Temple

The temple was built to atone for the wrongdoings of a Brahmin and a Gwala, according to legend. They cut down a tree, causing blood to flow, and to make amends, they built a garun temple for Lord Vishnu, making him happy and relieved for the deed of chopping down the tree.

Mythology and History
A gwala (a cow herder), according to the locals, purchased a cow from a brahman. The gwala agreed to the brahmin's trade of the cow after hearing that it produces a lot of milk. After buying the cow, the gwala used to take her out for grazing before beginning to milk her, but she only produced a small amount of milk. The gwala was unresponsive, speculating that she may have produced only a small amount of milk today. But as the process continued, the gwala eventually became very dejected and called the brahmin. The brahmin arrived and was shocked to see that his beloved cow was only producing a small amount of milk. She isn't producing enough milk because someone is stealing it before you start milking her, the brahmin gwala said. After leaving the cow to graze, they both went unnoticed the following day. As they stood by, someone emerged from a tree and began consuming the cow's milk. After becoming enraged by this, the brahmin and gwala took their axes and, believing the person inside the tree to be a demon, chopped it down. When blood began to flow from the tree, they realized they had committed an evil deed, and in order to atone for their sins, they built a temple.

Today, the brahmin Sudarshan's descendants live and serve as temple priests, while the Gwala's descendants serve as Ghutiyars (conservators). The main statue in the temple is known as Garud Narayan (head of a bird and body of a human) by Hindus and Hariharihari Vahan Lokeshwara by Buddhists. Only the main priest is permitted to enter and worship the main statue.

Activities
Changu Narayan Temple is in Bhaktapur and is surrounded by dense Champak trees. People from various tribes such as Brahmin, Chhetri, Tamang, Newar, and others live and work in the Changu Narayan area. With the growth of tourism and the number of visitors, we can find many medium and small-sized hotels, Newari restaurants, art and artifacts-related shops, and so on.

Changu museum is famous as it holds ancient art and artifacts and is situated on the way towards the holy place. It is also acknowledged as first private museum of Nepal established in order to preserve the culture traditions ancient coins, tools, arts, and architectures and has a huge collection of ancient, historical, artistic, religious, archaeological, cultural and other rare objects.

Conservation and Preservation 

However, even though Changu Narayan is under the conservation and protection of the Nepal government, the local administration has been unable to control mining, plotting, and deforestation activities. Overgrazing, deforestation, and deception activities in the nearby forest increase the likelihood of soil erosion and landslides. The temple, which is still listed as a world heritage site, has gone largely unnoticed by the administration in charge of site preservation. Due to a lack of management and conservation arrangements in the temple, the flow of tourists and companions has been rapidly declining.

Chitwan National Park

Chitwan National Park was Nepal's first national park. It was founded in 1973 and was designated a World Heritage Site in 1984. It has a total area of 952.63 km2. Chitwan's forest and plains covered more than 2,600 km2 (1,000 sq mi) in 1950 and were home to approximately 800 rhinos. By the end of the 1960s, 70% of Chitwan's forests had been cleared, thousands of people had settled, and only 95 rhinos remained. Therefore, the Chitwan National Park was created.

History
Though the country established the first conservation law dedicated to the protection of rhinos and their habitat in 1957, the preservation was not carried out in a consistent manner. Established in 1973, after human settlement began to increase in the 1960s, causing a significant reduction in wild animal numbers. The government established the national park with the assistance of various international administrations in order to conserve and protect wildlife. In December 1970, a rhino inspection patrol of 130 armed men and a system of guard posts throughout Chitwan were established to prevent rhino extinction, with borders outlined the following year and established in 1973. Conservation of Royal Bengal Tigers began soon after, and we can see the results today in the statistics, which show that Chitwan has 694 rhinoceroses and a whopping 93 tigers.

Activities
Chitwan National Park is home to 68 mammal species. In 2006, they recorded 543 species in the park, far more than in any other protected area in Nepal and roughly two-thirds of Nepal's globally threatened species. The Bengal tiger is the "king of the jungle." The diverse vegetation types in Chitwan National Park are home to over 700 species of wildlife and an unknown number of butterfly, moth, and insect species. Aside from the king cobra and rock python, there are 17 other species of snakes, starred tortoises, and monitor lizards. The Narayani-Rapti River system, including its small tributaries and a plethora of oxbow lakes, is home to 113 recorded species of fish and mugger crocodiles. The Inner Terai's typical vegetation is Himalayan subtropical broadleaf forests dominated by sal trees, which cover approximately 70% of the national park area. Kasara is the park's headquarters. Gharial and turtle conservation breeding centres have been established nearby. A vulture breeding canter was established in 2008 with the goal of housing up to 25 pairs of each of the two Gyps vulture species that are now critically endangered in Nepal. The Oriental white-backed vulture and the slender-billed vultures are being conserved as well.

Preservation and conservation
Every year in February and March, practice grass cutting and burning.

Massive grass cutting and removal of unwanted species from the newly created Padampur grassland. Since the year 2000, this area has been inhabited. Unwanted species must be cut and uprooted, and invading trees must be removed from grasslands.

Chitwan National Park is managed by the Nepal government's Department of National Parks and Wildlife Conservation. Kasara is the park's headquarters. Headquarters oversees most administrative tasks. Other administrative tasks are carried out in its eastern sector, Sauraha, and its western sector, Amaltari. Nepal Army has overseen park protection. There are 47 security posts in total, with 16 reserved for park staff and 13 reserved for Nepal Army personnel. Unwanted species must be cut and uprooted, and invading trees must be removed from grasslands.

Kathmandu durbar square

Kathmandu Durbar Square (Basantapur Durbar Kshetra) a   UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Nepal's Kathmandu Valley, located in front of the old royal palace of the former Kathmandu Kingdom. The Kathmandu Durbar Square housed the palaces of the city's rulers, the Malla and Shah kings. In addition to these palaces, the square is surrounded by quadrangles, which reveal courtyards and temples. It is known as Hanuman Dhoka Durbar Square, after a statue of Hanuman, Lord Ram's monkey devotee, that stands at the palace's entrance.

History and mythology
The preference for building royal palaces on this site dates to the Licchavi period in the third century. Even though the current palaces and temples have undergone extensive renovations, nothing physical from that era remains. Gunapo and Gupo, were the names given to the palaces in the square in the ancient period, imply that the palaces were built by Gunakamadev, a late-tenth-century King. When Kathmandu City gained independence under King Ratna Malla (1484-1520), the palaces in the square became the Malla’s Royal Palaces. Prithvi Narayan Shah chose Kathmandu Durbar Square for his palace when he invaded the Kathmandu Valley in 1769. Other Shah kings ruled from the square until 1896, when they moved to the newly constructed Narayanhiti Palace.

The square is still the site of major royal ceremonies, such as the coronation of King Birendra Bir Bikram Shah in 1975 and King Gyanendra Bir Bikram Shah in 2001. Though there are no written archives describing the history of Kathmandu Durbar Square, Sankharadev is credited with building the palace in the square (1069–1083). Ratna Malla, the first king of independent Kathmandu, is said to have built the Taleju temple on the northern side of the palace in 1501. The temple would have had to be built as part of the palace in the vihara style for this to be true. The premise surrounding the Mul Chok courtyard is that there is no evidence of a separate structure that would match this temple within the square.

Mahendra Malla's temples are the oldest in the square (1560–1574). They are Jagannath, Kotilingeswara Mahadev, Mahendreswara, and Taleju Temples. This three-roofed Taleju Temple, built in the typical Newari architectural style, was built in 1564 and is elevated on platforms that form a pyramid-like structure. It is said that Mahendra Malla was very devoted to the Taleju Temple in Bhaktapur, and the Goddess, pleased with his devotion, gave him a vision asking him to build a temple for her in Kathmandu Durbar Square. He designed the temple with the assistance of a hermit, and the Goddess entered the temple in the form of a bee.

Activities 
The Hanuman Dhoka Palace, located in Kathmandu's Durbar Square, was the royal Nepalese residence until the 19th century and hosted important ceremonies such as the coronation of the Nepalese monarch. The palace is ornately carved with wooden windows and panels, and it houses the King Tribhuvan Memorial Museum and the Mahendra Museum. The state rooms within the palace can now be visited as they are now part of the museum.

The temples and palaces in the square have been rebuilt several times after being damaged by natural causes or neglect for timely reconstruction and maintenance. There are currently fewer than ten quadrangles in the square. The temples have been designated as national heritage sites, and the palace has been converted into a museum. Only a few parts of the palace are open to visitors, and the Taleju temples (which are not permitted to be visited alone) are only open to Hindu and Buddhist believers.

The Kumari Chok, located at the southern end of Durbar Square, is one of Nepal's most unusual attractions. The Kumari, a girl chosen through an ancient and mystical selection process to become the human incarnation of the Hindu mother goddess Durga, is housed in this gilded cage. She takes a tour of the city during the Indra Jatra festival, during which she is carried from place to place in her chariot. She also appears in public during a few other festivals, and her devotees can visit and worship her for a fee paid to her guards. It is said that if she refuses to let you worship her, you will perish.

Most of the doors inside are closed due to religious reasons, and the Taleju temple is not permitted to be visited because of a bad history with anyone going alone. We noticed many teenagers visiting the location, which has a variety of roof top restaurants and a very cultural and traditional vibe.

Preservation and conservation 
On April 25, 2015, an earthquake with an estimated magnitude of 7.9 (Mw) struck the region, severely damaging the Square and razing several buildings, including the centuries-old wooden structure Kasthamandap. On April 25, 2015, a major earthquake caused several buildings in the Square to collapse. Durbar Square is surrounded by spectacular architecture that vividly displays the skills of Newar artists and craftsmen spanning centuries. The Royal Palace was originally located in Dattaraya Square, but was later relocated to Durbar Square.

This area is under the supervision of the Nepal government, and work is done from time to time to re-construct the area. The area is always crowded, and the local administration, along with the Newar tribe, raise a large sum of money for preservation and construction, while the government also plays an important role by defining the yearly budget.

Boudhanath Stupa

The great white stupa known as Boudhhanath, Boudha, or the Newari name Khasya Chaitya was built in the late sixth century CE during the Licchavi period and was inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage List in 1979. The stupa was built to connect Tibet and the Kathmandu valley. The stupa is a historical pilgrimage site for Buddhists all over the world. The area is surrounded by a pleasant patio that houses large populations of Tibetan refugees. Around Bouddha, they have built over 50 gompas (Tibetan monasteries).

History
The origin of the name Khasya Maha Chaitya has an intriguing backstory. Late king Bikramaditya constructed water spouts at the palace's southern edge, but there was no water. Astrologers later suggested a male human sacrifice with 32 perfections. Only the king and his son possessed those qualities. So, he decided to sacrifice himself and gave his son the task of killing someone sleeping near a water spout. His son did the same, and water began to flow from the spout, but he discovered his father's body. With guilt, he sought advice from a priest, who advised him to release a white bird from the top of Bajrayogini and build a stupa wherever it landed.

Activities
In modern times, the streets and narrow alleys surrounding Boudhanath Stupa are lined with colorful homes, Buddhist gompas, and street markets. There are numerous restaurants, coffee shops, cafes, art and craft stores, and so on. Laphing, thukpa, khapse, and other food items are also available. There are many Thankas and handmade accessories available from local vendors. People from all over the world come here to refresh their minds and bodies. The tranquil atmosphere encourages people to practice meditation and yoga. In the current context, many people come here to relieve their burdens and mental pressures and to keep their mind and body stress-free.

Preservation and Conservation
One of the most important Buddhist monuments is Boudhanath's great stupa. To preserve this site, the Nepalese government has established various rules and regulations. The tower suffered severe structural damage as a result of the 2015 earthquake. It was later rebuilt and reconstructed. Every year, the government sets aside money for its betterment and improvement.

Sagarmatha National Park

The Sagarmatha National Park is in eastern Nepal, in the lap of the Himalayas. The national park spans 1148 square kilometers in the Solukhumbu district and ranges in elevation from 2845 to 8848 meters. It is adjacent to Makalu Barun National Park. It is a typical area with stunning mountains, glaciers, deep valleys, and seven other peaks rising above 7000 meters. The park is home to several endangered species, including snow leopards and red pandas. In 1979, the Sagarmatha National Park was designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site. 

History
Sagarmatha National Park was founded in 1976. Later, in 1979, it was designated as a natural World Heritage Site. A buffer zone was added for environmental protection in January 2002. Various conservation strategies for forests, wildlife, flora and fauna, cultural resources, and other natural resources are implemented in this zone, followed by conservation of other natural resources.

Tourism to this area was first mentioned in the early 1960s, and approximately 19000 tourists were spotted in 2003. Later, Sherpa people lived in villages that were visited by seasonal tourists. The property is home to over 20 villages and over 6000 Sherpas who have lived in the area for the last four centuries.

The park encompasses the upper reaches of the Dudh Koshi, Bhotekoshi, and Gokyo rivers, as well as the Gokyo Lakes. It is mostly peaceful because of the rugged landscape and valleys of the high Himalayas. It stretches from 2845 meters to the world's highest peak, Sagarmatha, at 8848 meters above sea level. Lhoste, Cho Oyu, Thamserku, Nuptse, Amadablam, and Pumori are some of the other peaks. Around 69% of the park is covered by barren lands, 28% by grazing land, and the remainder by forest. 

Flora and Fauna
Sagarmatha National Park is home to 208 different bird species, including the Impeyan pheasant, bearded vulture, and snowcock. Himalayan Thar, Himalayan Serow, Musk deer, Indian leopards, and endangered species Snow leopards and red pandas are also included. The national park is now designated as an Important Bird Area.

In the national park, over 1000 floral species have been identified. The forest here is made up of fir, Himalayan brich, and rhododendron, among other things.

Activities
Every year, the total number of tourists visiting the property increases. Better health, education, and infrastructure facilities have greatly boosted the local economy and standard of living. Many people visit Sagarmatha for various reasons. Some go for trekking, others for relaxation, meditation, yoga research, and so on. People above there have their own culture and traditions, which draw people back again and again. The authentic Nepali culture of Sherpas, their traditions, and the natural scenery are all unique features of SNP.

Preservation and Conservation
For the preservation and conservation of SNP and their species, various rules and regulations are in place. Traditional, cultural, and religious practices such as animal hunting and slaughtering restrictions, as well as reverence for all living beings, are still in place. The national park has also been designated as an Important Bird Area. A buffer zone was also established to protect various wild species and to improve the socioeconomic status of local communities through a revenue plough back system. The SNP area is also a major source of glaciers, which provide freshwater benefits to people downstream. Aside from preserving the property's values, the park's priority is to monitor the effects of global warming and climate change on flora, fauna, and Sherpas.

Lumbini

Lumbini is a small village, archaeological site, and Buddhist pilgrimage site in the Rupendehi district of Nepal. According to Buddhist tradition, Lumbini is the birthplace of Siddhartha Gautama Shakya, also known as the Light of Asia. Lumbini is one of many pilgrimage sites that sprang up in locations significant to the Buddha's life. Lumbini was designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1997. The sacred area of Lumbini, as the birthplace of Lord Buddha, is one of the holiest places in the world's great religion, and it still contains important evidence about the nature of Buddhist pilgrimage centres from a very early period.

Birth of Buddha and History
Maya Devi, the wife of King Suddhodhana of Kapilvastu, arrived in Lumbini on her way to her maternal home in Devadaha on the full moon day of the month of Vaisakha, 623 BC. She reveled in the beauty of the Lumbini garden, accompanied by her servants, as she walked slowly and heavily with child, until she felt the pangs of labor. Recognizing that the time had come for her to give birth, she bathed in the Sakya Puskarini, which was almost in the center of the garden, and took twenty-five steps to the north for support.

She gave birth to her child while grasping a branch of a beautiful tree in full bloom. Lotus flowers sprang up in his footsteps as he took seven steps. This child, a wise man predicted, would be either a great secular ruler or a great religious leader. He was given the name Siddhartha (or Sarvrthasiddha), which means "a man who achieves his goals.".

The king shielded Siddhartha from seeing or experiencing anything unpleasant or upsetting for the first 29 years of his life, fearing that if he was exposed to the world's suffering, he would become a greater religious leader. He also married Princess Yasodhara. However, after escaping from his palace one day, Siddhartha witnessed four troubling scenes: a decrepit person, a withered person suffering from a disease, a funeral procession attended by weeping people, and an ascetic waling majestically.

After witnessing all these things, he realized that he, too, would get sick, grow old, die, and lose everything he cared about. As a result, he realized that the life he was living guaranteed that he would suffer, and that all of life was essentially defined by suffering from want or loss. As a result, he followed the example of the religious ascetic, tried various teachers and disciplines, and eventually attained enlightenment on his own, becoming known as the Buddha ("awakened" or "enlightened" one).

Activities
Lumbini has been separated into three sections: the frightened garden, the monastic zone, and the rebuilt Lumbini village. Lumbini's main attraction is the Scared Garden. It is home to Lord Buddha's birthplace, the Ashoka Pillar (a stone pillar built during Emperor Ashoka's reign in 539 BC). Ancient Sculpture, Puskarini Scared Pond, and other Buddhist Stupas were created to honor Lord Buddha after he visited Lumbini and decided to adopt Buddhism). The monastic zone is divided into two sections: the Theravada Buddhist school in the east and the Mahayana and Vajrayana Buddhist schools in the west.

Many countries have built unique historical, cultural, and spiritual Buddhist stupas and monasteries in the monastic zone, establishing the monastic zone as a sacred pilgrimage site. The Cultural Centre and New Lumbini Village hold the Lumbini Museum, Lumbini International Research Institute, World Peace Pagoda of Japan, Lumbini Crane Sanctuary, and other administrative offices.

Preservation and Conservation
Lumbini was saved thanks to the Ancient Monument Preservation Act of 1956, according to the authorities. The Lumbini Development Trust oversees overseeing the site's upkeep. The buffer zone and World Heritage Site are incorporated in a substantial portion of the master plan, which was designed around 1978 by a Japanese architect named Kenzo Tange. The Nepal Supreme Court erected new factories and heavy trucks around the pilgrimage spot. A stronger management plan is now being established to ensure the long-term preservation of the archaeological remnants on the land while still allowing pilgrims and tourists from all over the world to come.

Patan durbar square

Patan Durbar Square is in the heart of Lalitpur and is the oldest city in Nepal. It is an ancient royal palace of the Malla Kings and a Newar arts and architecture marvel. The Durbar Square is tiled in red, and there are stupas in every corner of the city. Patan Durbar Square was designated as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1979. It is also known as the one of the world's oldest Buddhist cities.

History and Mythology
The origins of Patan Durbar Square remain a mystery. Still, according to Buddhist facts, the city was designed in the shape of a Buddhist Dharma Chakra, and Emperor Ashoka visited Kathmandu with his daughter and built five Ashoka Stupas, one of which was in the center of Patan.

Patan was founded by the Kirat dynasty in the third century BC. The Bunga Dyah Jatra chariot festival was then established. At the end of the festive month, a picture of Rato Machhendanath is mounted on a chariot and drawn through Patan. The kirat authority established Patan, and afterwards Licchavi rulers arrived in the region. Later, the Malla Kings made significant changes to the location. Most modern architecture dates from the 1600s, when King Siddhi Narsingh Malla and his son Srinivasa Sukriti reigned.

Activities
Patan has become a popular tourist destination in recent years. Patan Durbar Square's main attractions include the Patan Museum, Mahaboudha Temple, Bhimsen Temple, Vishwanath Temple, and Taleju Bhawani Temple. Late King Sidhhi Narsingh Malla built Krishna Temple in the 17th century in Shikhara style (mountain peak). The temple has gained popularity among Hindu worshipers. The Golden Temple and golden windows can also be found in Patan Durbar Square. Aside from the Patan Durbar Square. The plaza is densely packed with historical sites, temples, and shrines.

Preservation and Conservation
There was significant destruction both inside and outside Patan following the destruction of durbars following the major earthquake in 2015 AD. However, the Kathmandu Valley Preservation Trust and Development of Archaeology has restored the damages using grants and initiatives from several nations for cultural preservation. They are also conserving Nepal's cultural heritage places. The Nepalese government has also implemented several policy reforms to ensure that foreign investment is used appropriately. This contributes to the improvement of the sector in which investment is made.

Bhaktapur Durbar Square

Bhaktapur Durbar Square is a small city filled with ancient Nepalese culture, customs, art, and architecture. From the 14th to the 15th centuries, it housed the Mallas of Nepal. It is 15 kilometers from Kathmandu Valley. With its huge open space facing south, Bhaktapur Durbar Square is the most graceful durbar. Bhaktapur is also recognized as a living arts and architectural museum. Bhaktapur has been on the World Heritage list since 1979.

Mythology and History
Malla Kingdom was established in Kathmandu Valley, eventually dividing Kathmandu, Bhaktapur, and Patan. Late monarch Ananda Dev is thought to have designed Bhaktapur, which contained a palace, temples, and local remnant dwellings. Durbar's old palace was erected in 1700. At the time of Jayasthiti Mallahe, the Newari Caste was classified. For nearly 300 years, the Mallas adorned the castle and its surroundings. Late King Bhupatindra Malla built the 55 Windowed Palace, Nyatapola shrine, and other other structures. Later, King Prithvi Narayan Shah and his Gurkha army overcame the Mallas, bringing Nepal to unity.

Activities
Bhaktapur has recently emerged as a popular tourist destination. It is known as a living museum of various arts and buildings since it focuses on Nepal's old arts. Nepal's significant attractions include the 55-window palace, the golden gate, the lions gate, the small Pashupatinath temple, Vastala Temple, Bhairavnath Temple, Nyatapola Temple, and others. The major feature of Bhaktapur Durbar Square is the golden gate, which is the most brilliantly conceived and polished piece of gilded metalwork. The 55-window palace is well-known for its finely carved woodwork. The life-size monument of Late King Bhupatindra was created as a tribute to Bhaktapur's cultural progress.

Conservation and preservation
Bhaktapur has always been famed for its exquisite medieval buildings, but a quarter of ancient monuments, including the palace, were damaged in the 2015 earthquake. Despite the catastrophe, the city's appearance does not appear to have changed significantly. Temples and monuments have been repaired and rebuilt in their original configurations. With financial backing from the German government, the pioneering Bhaktapur Development Project restored significant areas of lost history in the 1970s. Foreign funders are also assisting in various ways with reconstruction. Several international organizations, including China and Japan, have expressed interest in rebuilding the entire city. The Nepalese government and the people of Bhaktapur are working hard to improve the city and preserve ancient cultures and traditions.

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